|Thiamine (Vitamin B1)|
|Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)|
|Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)|
|Niacin (Vitamin B3)|
|Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)|
|Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)|
|Folate (Vitamin B9)|
|Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)|
|Retinol (Vitamin A)|
|Retinol Acetate (Vitamin A Acetate)|
|Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)|
|Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2)|
|Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E Acetate)|
|Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1)|
|Ash (Acid Insoluble)|
|Gross Calorific Value|
|Net Calorific Value|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Reducing)|
Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (SST) - This occurs when the area of the test piece of Willow ash falls below 95% of the original test piece area.
Ash Deformation Temperature (DT) - The temperature at which the first signs of rounding of the edges of the test piece occurs due to melting.
Ash Hemisphere Temperature (HT) - When the test piece of Willow ash forms a hemisphere (i.e. the height becomes equal to half the base diameter).
Ash Flow Temperature (FT) - The temperature at which the Willow ash is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which is half of the test piece at the hemisphere temperature.
At Celignis we can determine the bulk density of biomass samples, including Willow, according to ISO standard 17828 (2015). This method requires the biomass to be in an appropriate form (chips or powder) for density determination.
The processing of lignocellulosic materials in modern biorefineries will allow for the
production of transport fuels and platform chemicals that could replace petroleum-derived
products. However, there is a critical lack of relevant detailed compositional information
regarding feedstocks relevant to Ireland and Irish conditions. This research has involved the
collection, preparation, and the analysis, with a high level of precision and accuracy, of a
large number of biomass samples from the waste and agricultural sectors. Not all of the
waste materials analysed are considered suitable for biorefining; for example the total sugar
contents of spent mushroom composts are too low. However, the waste paper/cardboard
that is currently exported from Ireland has a chemical composition that could result in high
biorefinery yields and so could make a significant contribution to Irelandís biofuel demands.