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The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of lichen Xanthoparmelia somloensis, native to the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA. The antioxidant activity of lichen extracts was assessed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. The lipid peroxidation reaction of acetone and methanol extracts was inhibited 85% and 81%, respectively A free radical scavenging activity of 77% (acetone extract) and 65% (methanol extract) was determined. The antibacterial activity was assayed against four clinical strains using the agar well diffusion method. Except for Escherichia coli, both extracts were found inhibitory to Streptomyces aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes,and Steptococcus agalactiae with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 0.7-0.9 mg/ml. It was demonstrated that both the antioxidant and antibacterial activities correlated well with the protein to polysaccharide ratio rather than the polyphenol content of the lichen extracts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature report on antibacterial activity from the lichen X.somloensis. The results reported here warrant further investigations to establish the usefulness of X.somloensis in biomedical applications such as treatment of respiratory and urinary tract infections.