• Analytes Determined at Celignis
    Cellulose Conversion Yield

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Analysis Packages for Cellulose Conversion Yield

The Celignis Analysis Package(s) that determine this constituent are listed below:

Equipment Used for Cellulose Conversion Yield Analysis

Ion Chromatography

A Dionex ICS-3000 system that is equipmed with electrochemical, conductivity, and ultraviolet-visible detectors.

Incubated Shaker

This is used in analysis packages involving enzymes, for example in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

Publications on Cellulose Conversion Yield By The Celignis Team

V.P. Zambare, A. Bhalla, K. Muthukumarappan, R. Sani, L. Christopher (2011) Bioprocessing of agricultural residues to ethanol utilizing a cellulolytic extremophile, Extremophiles 15: 611-618


A recently discovered thermophilic isolate, Geobacillus sp. R7, was shown to produce a thermostable cellulase with a high hydrolytic potential when grown on extrusion-pretreated agricultural residues such corn stover and prairie cord grass. At 70C and 1520% solids, the thermostable cellulase was able to partially liquefy solid biomass only after 36 h of hydrolysis time. The hydrolytic capabilities of Geobacillus sp. R7 cellulase were comparable to those of a commercial cellulase. Fermentation of the enzymatic hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 24860 produced ethanol yields of 0.450.50 g ethanol/g glucose with more than 99% glucose utilization. It was further demonstrated that Geobacillus sp. R7 can ferment the lignocellulosic substrates to ethanol in a single step that could facilitate the development of a consolidated bioprocessing as an alternative approach for bioethanol production with outstanding potential for cost reductions.

Zambare, V. P., Zambare, A. V., Muthukumarappan, K., Christopher, L. P. (2011) Potential of thermostable cellulases in the bioprocessing of switchgrass to ethanol, BioResources 6(2): 2004-2020


Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a perennial grass native to North America, is a promising energy crop for bioethanol production. The aim of this study was to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of thermo-mechanically pretreated switchgrass using a thermostable cellulase from Geobacillus sp. in a three-level, four-variable central composite design of response surface methodology. Different combinations of solids loadings (5 to 20%), enzyme loadings (5 to 20 FPU g-1 DM), temperature (50 to 70 oC), and time (36 to 96 h) were investigated in a total of 30 experiments to model glucose release from switchgrass. All four factors had a significant impact on the cellulose conversion yields with a high coefficient of determination of 0.96. The use of higher solids loadings (20%) and temperatures (70 oC) during enzymatic hydrolysis proved beneficial for the significant reduction of hydrolysis times (2.67-times) and enzyme loadings (4-times), with important implications for reduced capital and operating costs of ethanol production. At 20% solids, the increase of temperature of enzymatic hydrolysis from 50 oC to 70 oC increased glucose concentrations by 34%. The attained maximum glucose concentration of 23.52 g L-1 translates into a glucose recovery efficiency of 46% from the theoretical yield. Following red yeast fermentation, a maximum ethanol concentration of 11 g L-1 was obtained, accounting for a high glucose to ethanol fermentation efficiency of 92%. The overall conversion efficiency of switchgrass to ethanol was 42%.

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