• Analytes Determined at Celignis
    Gross Calorific Value

The gross calorific value (often referred to as the higher heating value (HHV), gross energy or upper heating value) is determined by bringing all the products of the combustion of a sample back to the original pre-combustion temperature, condensing any vapour produced. The gross calorific value takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products, and is useful in calculating heating values for fuels where condensation of the reaction products is practical.

We determine the gross calorific value according to the procedures outlined in European Standard EN 14918:2009 ("Solid biofuels. Determination of calorific value") and we use a Parr 6200 bomb calorimeter which has been specifically designed to satisfy the requirements of this method.

The determination of the gross calorific value requires a correction based on the sulphur content of the sample.

We report the gross calorific value on a dry-mass basis as well as on an as-received basis and a dry ash-free basis (providing that the ash content and as-received moisture content of the sample have also been determined).

We calculate the Net Calorific Value (often referred to as the Lower Heating Value, LHV) from the Gross Calorific Value and the elemental (ultimate) analysis of the sample.

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Analysis Packages for Gross Calorific Value

The Celignis Analysis Package(s) that determine this constituent are listed below:

Equipment Used for Gross Calorific Value Analysis

Elemental Analyser

A Vario MACRO cube elemental analyser is used for the quantification of the Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Sulphur content of samples.

Muffle Furnace

A Nabertherm furnace is used for the determination of the ash content of samples and also in the analytical protocol for determining Klason lignin content.

Bomb Calorimeter

We use a Parr 6200 bomb calorimeter to determine the gross and net calorific value (higher and lower heating value) of samples.

Moisture Oven

We use a Memmert UF260 oven to determine moisture content according to standard EN methods of analysis.

Publications on Gross Calorific Value By The Celignis Team

Wnetrzak, R., Hayes, D. J. M., Jensen, L. S., Leahy, J. J., Kwapinski, W. (2015) Determination of the higher heating value of pig manure, Waste and Biomass Valorization 6(3): 327-333


The ability of using novel method of near infrared (NIR) spectra to predict the composition and higher heating value (HHV) of dry pig manure was examined. Number of pig manure solid fractions variously pre-treated samples were collected in Denmark, from different pig slurry treatment plants (using mechanical or chemical-mechanical separation) and then analysed for their energy values. These values were determined by conventional method using bomb calorimetry and also calculated based on ultimate analysis. NIR spectra method was successfully applied and reasonable R2 values were obtained for the independent prediction set for nitrogen, ash, and the HHV. NIR also showed ability for predicting which type of treatment plants the samples came from. In addition, new empirical equations, based on ultimate analyses of pig manure solids used for prediction of the HHV was established.

Additional Material

We can determine the Gross Calorific Value content of biomass, click here to learn more about our various biomass analysis methods.