• Analytes Determined at Celignis
    Sulphur

The Sulphur content of a sample is the contribution that Sulphur makes to the total mass of the sample. Click here for more information on the elemental composition of biomass.

We determine the sulphur content according to the procedures outlined in European Standard EN 15289:2011("Solid biofuels - Determination of total content of sulfur and chlorine") which states that appropriately validated automated equipment can be used for biomass samples. We use an Elementar Vario MACRO Cube elemental analyser which has been designed to satisfy these requirements and we follow the method outlined in European Standard EN 15104:2011 ("Solid biofuels - Determination of total content of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen - Instrumental methods") for the use of this device.

We report the sulphur content on a dry-mass basis as well as on an as-received basis and a dry ash-free basis (providing that the ash content and as-received moisture content of the sample have also been determined). We use the calculations outlined in European Standard EN 15296:2011 ("Solid biofuels - Conversion of analytical results from one basis to another") to carry out these conversions.


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Analysis Packages for Sulphur

The Celignis Analysis Package(s) that determine this constituent are listed below:

Analytical Procedure for Sulphur


☑ Step 1: Elemental Analysis of the Sample

Equipment Used for Sulphur Analysis



Elemental Analyser

A Vario MACRO cube elemental analyser is used for the quantification of the Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Sulphur content of samples.

Publications on Sulphur By The Celignis Team

Hayes, D. J. M. (2011) Analysis of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks for Biorefineries with a Focus on The Development of Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Primary Analytical Tool, PhD Thesis832 pages (over 2 volumes)

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The processing of lignocellulosic materials in modern biorefineries will allow for the production of transport fuels and platform chemicals that could replace petroleum-derived products. However, there is a critical lack of relevant detailed compositional information regarding feedstocks relevant to Ireland and Irish conditions. This research has involved the collection, preparation, and the analysis, with a high level of precision and accuracy, of a large number of biomass samples from the waste and agricultural sectors. Not all of the waste materials analysed are considered suitable for biorefining; for example the total sugar contents of spent mushroom composts are too low. However, the waste paper/cardboard that is currently exported from Ireland has a chemical composition that could result in high biorefinery yields and so could make a significant contribution to Irelandís biofuel demands.

Miscanthus was focussed on as a major agricultural feedstock. A large number of plants have been sampled over the course of the harvest window (October to April) from several sites. These have been separated into their anatomical fractions and analysed. This has allowed observations to be made regarding the compositional trends observed within plants, between plants, and between harvest dates. Projections are made regarding the extents to which potential chemical yields may vary. For the DIBANET hydrolysis process that is being developed at the University of Limerick, per hectare yields of levulinic acid from Miscanthus could be 20% greater when harvested early compared with a late harvest.

The wet-chemical analysis of biomass is time-consuming. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed as a rapid primary analytical tool with separate quantitative models developed for the important constituents of Miscanthus, peat, and (Australian) sugarcane bagasse. The work has demonstrated that accurate models are possible, not only for dry homogenous samples, but also for wet heterogeneous samples. For glucose (cellulose) the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for wet samples is 1.24% and the R2 for the validation set ( ) is 0.931. High accuracies are even possible for minor analytes; e.g. for the rhamnose content of wet Miscanthus samples the RMSEP is 0.03% and the is 0.845. Accurate models have also been developed for pre-treated Miscanthus samples and are discussed. In addition, qualitative models have been developed. These allow for samples to be discriminated for on the basis of plant fraction, plant variety (giganteus/non-giganteus), harvest-period (early/late), and stand-age (one-year/older).

Quantitative NIRS models have also been developed for peat, although the heterogeneity of this feedstock means that the accuracies tend to be lower than for Miscanthus. The development of models for sugarcane bagasse has been hindered, in some cases, by the limited chemical variability between the samples in the calibration set. Good models are possible for the glucose and total sugars content, but the accuracy of other models is poorer. NIRS spectra of Brazilian bagasse samples have been projected onto these models, and onto those developed for Miscanthus, and the Miscanthus models appear to provide a better fit than the Australian bagasse models.

Additional Material

We can determine the Sulphur content of biomass, click here to learn more about our various biomass analysis methods.

We can determine the Sulphur content of pyrolysis bio-oils, click here to learn more about our various methods for analysing bio-oil.

We can determine the Sulphur content of seaweed, click here to learn more about our various methods for analysing seaweed.



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