The ultimate (elemental) analysis of biomass will provide the mass concentrations of the major elements (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur) in the sample.
We determine the carbon
, and sulphur
contents of samples according to the procedures outlined in European Standard EN 15104:2011 ("Solid biofuels - Determination of total content of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen - Instrumental methods"). We use an Elementar Vario MACRO Cube
elemental analyser which has been designed to satisfy the requirements of this method.
We determine the oxygen content
by difference according to the formula below:
(%) = 100 - Carbon(% Dry Basis)
- Hydrogen(% Dry Basis)
- Nitrogen(% Dry Basis)
-Sulphur(% Dry Basis) - Ash(% Dry Basis)
In order to carry out this calculation we also need to analyse for the ash content
of the sample.
For this Analysis Package we report the contents of each analyte on a dry-mass basis as well as on an as-received basis and a dry ash-free basis (providing that the as-received moisture content
of the sample has also been determined). We use the calculations outlined in European Standard EN 15296:2011 ("Solid biofuels - Conversion of analytical results from one basis to another") to carry out these conversions. Our figures for the oxygen and hydrogen contents of the sample on an as-received basis only consider the oxygen and hydrogen present in the biomass and not that present in the water.