|Lignin (Klason - Protein Corrected)|
|Lignin (Acid Soluble)|
|Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Extractives (Exhaustive - Water then Ethanol)|
|Lignin S/G Ratio|
|Extractives (Water-Insoluble, Ethanol Soluble)|
|Protein Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Carbon Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Hydrogen Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Nitrogen Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Sulphur Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Thiamine (Vitamin B1)|
|Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)|
|Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)|
|Niacin (Vitamin B3)|
|Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)|
|Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)|
|Folate (Vitamin B9)|
|Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)|
|Retinol (Vitamin A)|
|Retinol Acetate (Vitamin A Acetate)|
|Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)|
|Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2)|
|Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E Acetate)|
|Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1)|
|Ash (Acid Insoluble)|
|Gross Calorific Value|
|Net Calorific Value|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Reducing)|
|Specific Surface Area (Nitrogen Gas Adsorption)|
|BET Isotherm (5 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|BET Isotherm (20 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|Pore Size Distribution|
|BET Isotherm (20 Point Using Carbon Dioxide)|
|BET Isotherm (40 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|Ash Content (815C)|
|Thernogram - Under Nitrogen|
|Thermogram - Under Ait|
|Water Holding Capacity|
|Cation Exchange Capacity|
Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (SST) - This occurs when the area of the test piece of Foliage ash falls below 95% of the original test piece area.
Ash Deformation Temperature (DT) - The temperature at which the first signs of rounding of the edges of the test piece occurs due to melting.
Ash Hemisphere Temperature (HT) - When the test piece of Foliage ash forms a hemisphere (i.e. the height becomes equal to half the base diameter).
Ash Flow Temperature (FT) - The temperature at which the Foliage ash is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which is half of the test piece at the hemisphere temperature.
At Celignis we can provide you with crucial data on feedstock suitability for AD as well as on the composition of process residues. For example, we can determine the biomethane potential (BMP) of Foliage. The BMP can be considered to be the experimental theoretical maximum amount of methane produced from a feedstock. We moniotor the volume of biogas produced allowing for a cumulative plot over time, accessed via the Celignis Database. Our BMP packages also involve routine analysis of biogas composition (biomethane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, oxygen). We also provide detailed analysis of the digestate, the residue that remains after a sample has been digested. Our expertise in lignocellulosic analysis can allow for detailed insight regarding the fate of the different biogenic polymers during digestion.
At Celignis we can determine the bulk density of biomass samples, including Foliage, according to ISO standard 17828 (2015). This method requires the biomass to be in an appropriate form (chips or powder) for density determination.
Our lab is equipped with a Retsch AS 400 sieve shaker. It can accommodate sieves of up to 40 cm diameter, corresponding to a surface area of 1256 square centimetres. This allows us to determine the particle size distribution of a range of samples, including Foliage, by following European Standard methods EN 15149- 1:2010 and EN 15149-2:2010.
Context: Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the phytobiont), usually either a green alga or cyanobacterium. The morphology, physiology and biochemistry of lichens are very different from those of the isolated fungus and alga in culture. Lichens occur in some of the most extreme environments on the Earth and may be useful to scientists in many commercial applications. Objective: Over the past 2 decades, there has been a renewed and growing interest in lichens as a source of novel, pharmacologically active biomolecules. This review summarizes the past and current research and development trends in the characterization and use of lichens and their bioactive compounds in traditional medicine and other biopharmaceutical applications of commercial interest. Methods: The present review contains 10 illustrations and 188 references compiled from major databases including Science Direct, Chemical Abstracts, PubMed and Directory of Open Access Journals. Results: Lichen morphology, symbiosis, diversity and bioactivities including enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, anti-insecticidal and antioxidant actions were reviewed and summarized. Recent progress in lichens and lichen-forming fungi was discussed with emphasis on their potential to accelerate commercialization of lichen-based products. Conclusions: Lichens are an untapped source of biological activities of industrial importance and their potential is yet to be fully explored and utilized. Lichen-derived bioactive compounds hold great promise for biopharmaceutical applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents and in the development of new formulations or technologies for the benefit of human life.