|Lignin (Klason - Protein Corrected)|
|Lignin (Acid Soluble)|
|Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Extractives (Exhaustive - Water then Ethanol)|
|Lignin S/G Ratio|
|Extractives (Water-Insoluble, Ethanol Soluble)|
|Protein Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Carbon Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Hydrogen Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Nitrogen Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Sulphur Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Thiamine (Vitamin B1)|
|Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)|
|Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)|
|Niacin (Vitamin B3)|
|Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)|
|Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)|
|Folate (Vitamin B9)|
|Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)|
|Retinol (Vitamin A)|
|Retinol Acetate (Vitamin A Acetate)|
|Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)|
|Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2)|
|Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E Acetate)|
|Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1)|
|Ash (Acid Insoluble)|
|Gross Calorific Value|
|Net Calorific Value|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Reducing)|
|Specific Surface Area (Nitrogen Gas Adsorption)|
|BET Isotherm (5 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|BET Isotherm (20 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|Pore Size Distribution|
|BET Isotherm (20 Point Using Carbon Dioxide)|
|BET Isotherm (40 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|Ash Content (815C)|
|Thernogram - Under Nitrogen|
|Thermogram - Under Ait|
|Water Holding Capacity|
|Cation Exchange Capacity|
Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (SST) - This occurs when the area of the test piece of Forest Residues ash falls below 95% of the original test piece area.
Ash Deformation Temperature (DT) - The temperature at which the first signs of rounding of the edges of the test piece occurs due to melting.
Ash Hemisphere Temperature (HT) - When the test piece of Forest Residues ash forms a hemisphere (i.e. the height becomes equal to half the base diameter).
Ash Flow Temperature (FT) - The temperature at which the Forest Residues ash is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which is half of the test piece at the hemisphere temperature.
At Celignis we can provide you with crucial data on feedstock suitability for AD as well as on the composition of process residues. For example, we can determine the biomethane potential (BMP) of Forest Residues. The BMP can be considered to be the experimental theoretical maximum amount of methane produced from a feedstock. We moniotor the volume of biogas produced allowing for a cumulative plot over time, accessed via the Celignis Database. Our BMP packages also involve routine analysis of biogas composition (biomethane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, oxygen). We also provide detailed analysis of the digestate, the residue that remains after a sample has been digested. Our expertise in lignocellulosic analysis can allow for detailed insight regarding the fate of the different biogenic polymers during digestion.
At Celignis we can determine the bulk density of biomass samples, including Forest Residues, according to ISO standard 17828 (2015). This method requires the biomass to be in an appropriate form (chips or powder) for density determination.
Our lab is equipped with a Retsch AS 400 sieve shaker. It can accommodate sieves of up to 40 cm diameter, corresponding to a surface area of 1256 square centimetres. This allows us to determine the particle size distribution of a range of samples, including Forest Residues, by following European Standard methods EN 15149- 1:2010 and EN 15149-2:2010.
The Maximum Protease Activity Was Obtained From P. Aeruginosa MCM B-327 With Soybean Meal 1%, Tryptone 1%, Initial Medium PH 7, Agitation Rate 250 Rpm, Aeration Rate 0.75 Vvm And Fermentation Temperature 30 °C, Under Submerged Fermentation Conditions (SmF). The Protease Productivity At 10 And 120L Fermenters Was Found To Be 16,021 And 9,975 UL-1h-1 Respectively. Kinetics Of Cell Growth Revealed That Specific Cell Growth Rate Was 0.025 H-1. Protease Was Active And Stable At Different PH, Temperatures, In Anionic, Cationic And Non-Ionic Detergent Additives, As Well As In Commercial Detergents. The Protease Exhibited Blood Stains Removing Performance Indicating Its Potential In Detergent Industry. The Dried Ammonium Sulphate Precipitated Protease Was Stable At Room Temperature For A Period Of One Year. The Protease Has Shown Properties Suitable For Its Application In Detergents. The Results Contribute To Basic Knowledge And Application Of Protease From P.Aeruginosa To Detergent Industry. The Studies Will Help To Optimize The Production Of This Protease For Biotechnological Applications.
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS), an abundant agricultural residue in the USA. A five-level, three-variable central composite design (CCD) was employed in a total of 20 experiments to model and evaluate the impact of pH (4.1–6.0), solids loadings (6.6–23.4%), and enzyme loadings (6.6?23.4 FPU g?1 DM) on glucose yield from thermo-mechanically extruded CS. The extruded CS was first hydrolyzed with the crude cellulase of Penicillium pinophilum ATCC 200401 and then fermented to ethanol with Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 24860. Although all three variables had a significant impact, the enzyme loadings proved the most significant parameter for maximizing the glucose yield. A partial cubic equation could accurately model the response surface of enzymatic hydrolysis as the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a coefficient of determination (R2 ) of 0.82. At the optimal conditions of pH of 4.5, solids loadings of 10% and enzyme loadings of 20 FPU g?1 DM, the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated CS produced a glucose yield of 57.6% of the glucose maximum yield which was an increase of 10.4% over the non-optimized controls at zero-level central points. The predicted results based on the RSM regression model were in good agreement with the actual experimental values. The model can present a rapid means for estimating lignocellulose conversion yields within the selected ranges.
Prairie cordgrass (PCG), Spartina pectinata, is considered an energy crop with potential for bioethanol production in North America. The focus of this study was to optimize enzymatic hydrolysis of PCG at higher solids loadings using a thermostable cellulase of a mutant Penicillium pinophilum ATCC 200401. A three variable, five-level central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed in a total of 20 experiments to model and evaluate the impact of pH (4.1–6.0), solids loadings (6.6%–23.4%), and enzyme loadings (6.6–23.4 FPU/g dry matter, DM) on glucose yield from a thermo-mechanically extruded PCG. The extruded PCG was first hydrolyzed with the crude P. pinophilum cellulase and then fermented to ethanol with Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 24860. Although all three variables had a significant impact, the enzyme loadings proved the most significant parameter for maximizing the glucose yield. A partial cubic equation could accurately model the response surface of enzymatic hydrolysis as the analysis of variance showed a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.89. At the optimal conditions of pH of 4.5, solids loadings of 10% and enzyme loadings of 20 FPU/g DM, the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated PCG produced a glucose yield of 76.1% from the maximum yield which represents an increase of 15% over the non-optimized controls at the zero-level central points. The predicted results based on the RSM regression model were in good agreement with the actual experimental values. The model can present a rapid means for estimating lignocellulose conversion yields within the selected ranges. Furthermore, statistical optimization of solids and enzyme loadings of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass may have important implications for reduced capital and operating costs of ethanol production.
The optimization of nutritional factors and their concentrations for the amylase production by Bacillus cereus MCM B-326 in submerged fermentation was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) based on the central composite design (CCD). The design contains a total of 20 experimental trials containing starch, soybean meal and CaCO3 as model factors for three levels. The mutual interaction between these variables resulted into 1.36 fold increase in amylase activity as compared to the mean predicted response at zero level of all variables. Amylase from B. cereus has approximate molecular weight of 40 kDa with optimum activity at pH 7.0 and temperature 30°C.
A thermophilic microbial consortium (TMC) producing hydrolytic (cellulolytic and xylanolytic) enzymes was isolated from yard waste compost following enrichment with carboxymethyl cellulose and birchwood xylan. When grown on 5% lignocellulosic substrates (corn stover and prairie cord grass) at 600 C, the thermophilic consortium produced more xylanase (up to 489 U/l on corn stover) than cellulase activity (up to 367 U/l on prairie cord grass). Except for the carboxymethyl cellulose-enriched consortium, thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatment of these substrates had a positive effect on both activities with up to 13% and 21% increase in the xylanase and cellulase production, respectively. The optimum temperatures of the crude cellulase and xylanase were 600 C and 700 C with half-lives of 15 h and 18 h, respectively, suggesting higher thermostability for the TMC xylanase. Sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the crude enzyme exhibited protein bands of 25-77 kDa with multiple enzyme activities containing 3 cellulases and 3 xylanases. The substrate specificity declined in the following descending order: avicel>birchwood xylan>microcrystalline cellulose>filter paper>pine wood saw dust>carboxymethyl cellulose. The crude enzyme was 77% more active on insoluble than soluble cellulose. The Km and Vmax values were 36.49 mg/ml and 2.98 U/mg protein on avicel (cellulase), and 22.25 mg/ml and 2.09 U/mg protein, on birchwood xylan (xylanase). A total of 50 TMC isolates were screened for cellulase and xylanase secretion on agar plates. All single isolates showed significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the thermophilic consortia. This is indicative of the strong synergistic interactions that exist within the thermophilic microbial consortium and enhance its hydrolytic capabilities. It was further demonstrated that the thermostable enzyme-generated lignocellulosic hydrolyzates can be fermented to bioethanol by a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli. This could have important implications in the enzymatic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass for the establishment of a robust and cost-efficient process for production of cellulosic ethanol. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first report in literature on biochemical characterization of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from a thermophilic microbial consortium.
Production of amylase under submerged fermentation Bacillus sp. was investigated using wheat bran, soybean meal and CaCO3 (WSC) medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of the main variables, i.e., pH (11.35), temperature (35.16°C) and inoculum size (2.95%) on amylase production by applying a full factorial central composite design (CCD). The mutual interaction between these variables resulted into 4.64 fold increase in amylase activity as compared to the non-optimized environmental factors in the basal medium.
The production of cellulase in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UNPDV-22 was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) was used to study the interactive effect of fermentation medium components (wheat bran, soybean meal, and malt dextrin) on cellulase activity. Results suggested that wheat bran, soybean meal, and malt dextrin all have significant impact on cellulase production. The use of RSM resulted in a 70% increase in the cellulase activity over the control of non-optimized basal medium. Optimum cellulase production of 11.23 U/mL was obtained in a fermentation medium containing wheat bran (1.03%, w/v), soybean meal (2.43%, w/v), and malt dextrin (2.95%, w/v).
The production of cellulase in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UNPDV-22 was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) was used to study the interactive effect of culture conditions (temperature, pH, and inoculum) on cellulase activity. Results suggested that temperature and pH all have significant impact on cellulase production. The use of RSM resulted in a 96% increase in the cellulase activity over the control of non-optimized basal medium. Optimum cellulase production of 13 U/mL was obtained at a temperature of 42.24 °C, pH of 5.25, and inoculum size of 4.95% (v/v) in a fermentation medium containing wheat bran, soybean meal and malt dextrin as major nutritional factors.
Bacillus sp. was cultured in solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw to produce cellulase. The fermented biomass was harvested after 36 h of SSF at pH 8 and temperature 400C. It was filtered and centrifuged at 10,000 rpm at 4 0C and supernatant was collected as crude enzyme extract. Maximum activity of cellulase (3.775±0.13U/ml) was obtained after fermentation of wheat straw (10g) medium containing 0.2g soybean meal, 0.04g corn steep liquor (CSL), 80% moisture content (mineral salt medium, pH 8), 2-mL inoculum, and temperature 40 0C. SSF was found to be more productive than submerged fermentation (SmF) in terms of cellulase yields. The partial purification of cellulase was carried out through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation. The partially purified enzyme produced under SSF had molecular weight of 35 and 45kDa. It was active in a broad pH (4-10) and temperature range (25-550C). The optimum, pH and temperature of Bacillus cellulase were pH 5 and 450C, respectively. At 500C and 600C, the half lives of the partially purified cellulase were 194 and 163 min, respectively. All the results indicated that the Bacillus sp. had a promising application of treatment of agro-wastes and cellulase from Bacillus sp. could be potentially used in biofuel industries.
Glucoamylase is a well recognized amylolytic enzyme used in food industry, which is generally produced by Aspergillus genus under solid-state fermentation (SSF). This study presents production of glucoamylase by Aspergillus oryzae on the solid surface of rice husk, wheat bran, rice bran, cotton seed powder, corn steep solids, bagasse powder, coconut oil cake, and groundnut oil cake as substrates. Optimization of the SSF media and parameters resulted in a 24% increase in the glucoamylase activity. Optimum glucoamylase production (1986 µmoles of glucose produced per minute per gram of dry fermented substrate) was observed on wheat bran supplemented with 1%, (w/w) starch, 0.25%, (w/w) urea at pH 6, 100%, (v/w) initial moisture and 300C after incubation 120 hrs. Therefore, A. oryzae can be useful in bioprocessing application for saccharification of agro-residues.
The present invention relates to an extracellular enzyme protease obtained by growing the culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCM B-327 isolated from vermiculture pit soil and deposited in MTCC, IMTECH, Chandigarh with designation MTCC 5270, in production medium of pH 7.0; containing soybean meal and tryptone as raw materials, at 30° C. for 72 h. The organism was also able to produce protease using different agricultural products/byproducts as protein sources. The partially purified non-collagenolytic, calcium independent protease with molecular weight 60 kDa has activity in pH range of 6.0-11.0 and temperature range of 25-65° C.; stability in pH range of 6.0-10.0 and temperature 25-45° C. The protease activity was retained for 8 months when stored at ambient temperature. Ammonium sulphate precipitated enzyme was able to completely dehair animal skins and hides without chemicals like lime, sodium sulphide and calcium.