|Lignin (Klason - Protein Corrected)|
|Lignin (Acid Soluble)|
|Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Extractives (Exhaustive - Water then Ethanol)|
|Lignin S/G Ratio|
|Extractives (Water-Insoluble, Ethanol Soluble)|
|Protein Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Carbon Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Hydrogen Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Nitrogen Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Sulphur Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Thiamine (Vitamin B1)|
|Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)|
|Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)|
|Niacin (Vitamin B3)|
|Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)|
|Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)|
|Folate (Vitamin B9)|
|Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)|
|Retinol (Vitamin A)|
|Retinol Acetate (Vitamin A Acetate)|
|Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)|
|Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2)|
|Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E Acetate)|
|Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1)|
|Ash (Acid Insoluble)|
|Gross Calorific Value|
|Net Calorific Value|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Reducing)|
|Thernogram - Under Nitrogen|
|Thermogram - Under Air|
|Specific Surface Area (Nitrogen Gas Adsorption)|
|Specific Surface Area (CO2 Gas Adsorption)|
|BET Isotherm (5 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|BET Isotherm (20 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|Pore Volume (Using Nitrogen)|
|Pore Volume (Using CO2)|
|Pore Size Distribution (Using Nitrogen)|
|BET Isotherm (20 Point Using Carbon Dioxide)|
|BET Isotherm (40 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|Average Pore Width (Using Nitrogen)|
|Average Pore Width (Using CO2)|
|Ash Content (815C)|
|Thernogram - Under Nitrogen|
|Thermogram - Under Air|
|Water Holding Capacity|
|Cation Exchange Capacity|
Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (SST) - This occurs when the area of the test piece of Grass ash falls below 95% of the original test piece area.
Ash Deformation Temperature (DT) - The temperature at which the first signs of rounding of the edges of the test piece occurs due to melting.
Ash Hemisphere Temperature (HT) - When the test piece of Grass ash forms a hemisphere (i.e. the height becomes equal to half the base diameter).
Ash Flow Temperature (FT) - The temperature at which the Grass ash is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which is half of the test piece at the hemisphere temperature.
At Celignis we can provide you with crucial data on feedstock suitability for AD as well as on the composition of process residues. For example, we can determine the biomethane potential (BMP) of Grass. The BMP can be considered to be the experimental theoretical maximum amount of methane produced from a feedstock. We moniotor the volume of biogas produced allowing for a cumulative plot over time, accessed via the Celignis Database. Our BMP packages also involve routine analysis of biogas composition (biomethane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, oxygen). We also provide detailed analysis of the digestate, the residue that remains after a sample has been digested. Our expertise in lignocellulosic analysis can allow for detailed insight regarding the fate of the different biogenic polymers during digestion.
At Celignis we can determine the bulk density of biomass samples, including Grass, according to ISO standard 17828 (2015). This method requires the biomass to be in an appropriate form (chips or powder) for density determination.
Our lab is equipped with a Retsch AS 400 sieve shaker. It can accommodate sieves of up to 40 cm diameter, corresponding to a surface area of 1256 square centimetres. This allows us to determine the particle size distribution of a range of samples, including Grass, by following European Standard methods EN 15149- 1:2010 and EN 15149-2:2010.
Next-generation biofuels from renewable sources have gained interest among research investigators, industrialists, and governments due to major concerns on the volatility of oil prices, climate change, and depletion of oil reserves. Biobutanol has drawn signicant attention as an alternative transportation fuel due to its superior fuel properties over ethanol. e advantages of butanol are its high energy content, better blending with gasoline, less hydroscopic nature, lower volatility, direct use in convention engines, low corrosiveness, etc. Butanol production through (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) ABE fermentation is a well-established process, but it has several drawbacks like feedstock cost, strain degeneration, product toxicity, and low product concentrations. Lignocellulosic biomass is considered as the most abundant, renewable, low-cost feedstock for biofuels. Production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is more complicated due to the recalcitrance of feedstock and inhibitors generated during the pretreatment and hydrolysis process. Advanced fermentation and product recovery techniques are being researched to make biobutanol industrially viable.
Biomass feedstock having less competition with food crops are desirable for bio-ethanol production and such resources may not be localized geographically. A distributed production strategy is therefore more suitable for feedstock like water hyacinth with a decentralized availability. In this study, we have demonstrated the suitability of this feedstock for production of fermentable sugars using cellulases produced on site. Testing of acid and alkali pretreatment methods indicated that alkali pretreatment was more efficient in making the sample susceptible to enzyme hydrolysis. Cellulase and ?-glucosidase loading and the effect of surfactants were studied and optimized to improve saccharification. Redesigning of enzyme blends resulted in an improvement of saccharification from 57% to 71%. A crude trial on fermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate using the common bakerís yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded an ethanol concentration of 4.4 g/L.