• Feedstocks Analysed at Celignis
    Animal Manures

Background on Animal Manures

The main types of animal manures include: cattle slurries, pig slurries, and poultry litter. The composition of animal wastes is a complex issue, being dependent on: the class of animal; diet; digestibility of food; bedding; and stage of growth, among other factors.

Analysis of Animal Manures at Celignis



Celignis Analytical can determine the following properties of Animal Manures samples:



Lignocellulosic Properties of Animal Manures

Cellulose Content of Animal Manures

Celignis founder Daniel Hayes has extensive experience in the collection, preparation, and chemical/infrared analysis of animal manures. He has carried out a research project, funded by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency, that involved the analysis of cattle slurries, pig slurries, and poultry litter. There were significant compositional differences within and between each of these types.

In general, the carbohydrate contents of animal manures are much lower than those of dedicated energy crops (e.g. Miscanthus) and other agricultural residues (e.g. straws). However glucose (primarily a cellulosic sugar) is typically the most abundant carbohydrate.

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Hemicellulose Content of Animal Manures

Hemicellulose content (if assumed to be equal to be total sugars minus glucose content) was noted to be greater than cellulose content (assumed to be equivalent to the glucose content) in pig manures but not in cattle manures. Of the hemicellulosic sugars, xylose is typically the most abundant, followed by arabinose.

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Lignin Content of Animal Manures

The lignin content of animal slurries can vary substantially according to livestock class and diet.

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Starch Content of Animal Manures

The starch content of animal manures can vary greatly according to the species and their diet.

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Uronic Acid Content of Animal Manures



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Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Animal Manures

We can undertake tests involving the enzymatic hydrolysis of Animal Manures. In these experiments we can either use a commercial enzyme mix or you can supply your own enzymes. We also offer analysis packages that compare the enzymatic hydrolysis of a pre-treated sample with that of the native original material.

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Bioenergy Properties of Animal Manures

Ash Content of Animal Manures

Ash can be a significant component of animal manures. This may be a problem when considering suitable technologies for valorising this waste.

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Heating (Calorific) Value of Animal Manures

The heating value of animal slurries is typically very low due to their high moisture and ash contents. It may therefore be necessary to dry slurries before they are used in combustion or thermochemical processes. However, poultry litter can have a significantly lower moisture content than many other animal wastes (e.g. pig/cattle slurries).

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Ash Melting Behaviour of Animal Manures

Ash melting, also known as ash fusion and ash softening, can lead to slagging, fouling and corrosion in boilers which may reduce conversion efficiency. We can determine the ash melting behaviour of Animal Manures using our Carbolite CAF G5 BIO ash melting furnace. It can record the following temperatures:

Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (SST) - This occurs when the area of the test piece of Animal Manures ash falls below 95% of the original test piece area.

Ash Deformation Temperature (DT) - The temperature at which the first signs of rounding of the edges of the test piece occurs due to melting.

Ash Hemisphere Temperature (HT) - When the test piece of Animal Manures ash forms a hemisphere (i.e. the height becomes equal to half the base diameter).

Ash Flow Temperature (FT) - The temperature at which the Animal Manures ash is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which is half of the test piece at the hemisphere temperature.



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Major and Minor Elements in Animal Manures

Examples of major elements that may be present in Animal Manures include potassium and sodium which are present in biomass ash in the forms of oxides. These can lead to fouling, ash deposition in the convective section of the boiler. Alkali chlorides can also lead to slagging, the fusion and sintering of ash particles which can lead to deposits on boiler tubes and walls.

We can also determine the levels of 13 different minor elements (such as arsenic, copper, and zinc) that may be present in Animal Manures.

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Analysis of Animal Manures for Anaerobic Digestion



Biomethane potential (BMP) of Animal Manures

Animal manures are one of the primary feedstocks used in anaerobic digestion.

The biochemical methane potential (BMP) can vary significantly according to the type of animal, its diet, and its stage of growth. For this reason we recommend that direct determination of the BMP is undertaken in order to fully understand the potential biogas yields from your samples, rather than relying on data from the literature.

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Physical Properties of Animal Manures



Bulk Density of Animal Manures

At Celignis we can determine the bulk density of biomass samples, including Animal Manures, according to ISO standard 17828 (2015). This method requires the biomass to be in an appropriate form (chips or powder) for density determination.



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Particle Size of Animal Manures

Animal manures are one of the primary feedstocks used in anaerobic digestion.

The biochemical methane potential (BMP) can vary significantly according to the type of animal, its diet, and its stage of growth. For this reason we recommend that direct determination of the BMP is undertaken in order to fully understand the potential biogas yields from your samples, rather than relying on data from the literature.

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Publications on Animal Manures By The Celignis Team

Wnetrzak, R., Hayes, D. J. M., Jensen, L. S., Leahy, J. J., Kwapinski, W. (2015) Determination of the higher heating value of pig manure, Waste and Biomass Valorization 6(3): 327-333

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The ability of using novel method of near infrared (NIR) spectra to predict the composition and higher heating value (HHV) of dry pig manure was examined. Number of pig manure solid fractions variously pre-treated samples were collected in Denmark, from different pig slurry treatment plants (using mechanical or chemical-mechanical separation) and then analysed for their energy values. These values were determined by conventional method using bomb calorimetry and also calculated based on ultimate analysis. NIR spectra method was successfully applied and reasonable R2 values were obtained for the independent prediction set for nitrogen, ash, and the HHV. NIR also showed ability for predicting which type of treatment plants the samples came from. In addition, new empirical equations, based on ultimate analyses of pig manure solids used for prediction of the HHV was established.

Hayes, D. J. M. (2011) Analysis of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks for Biorefineries with a Focus on The Development of Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Primary Analytical Tool, PhD Thesis832 pages (over 2 volumes)

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The processing of lignocellulosic materials in modern biorefineries will allow for the production of transport fuels and platform chemicals that could replace petroleum-derived products. However, there is a critical lack of relevant detailed compositional information regarding feedstocks relevant to Ireland and Irish conditions. This research has involved the collection, preparation, and the analysis, with a high level of precision and accuracy, of a large number of biomass samples from the waste and agricultural sectors. Not all of the waste materials analysed are considered suitable for biorefining; for example the total sugar contents of spent mushroom composts are too low. However, the waste paper/cardboard that is currently exported from Ireland has a chemical composition that could result in high biorefinery yields and so could make a significant contribution to Irelandís biofuel demands.

Miscanthus was focussed on as a major agricultural feedstock. A large number of plants have been sampled over the course of the harvest window (October to April) from several sites. These have been separated into their anatomical fractions and analysed. This has allowed observations to be made regarding the compositional trends observed within plants, between plants, and between harvest dates. Projections are made regarding the extents to which potential chemical yields may vary. For the DIBANET hydrolysis process that is being developed at the University of Limerick, per hectare yields of levulinic acid from Miscanthus could be 20% greater when harvested early compared with a late harvest.

The wet-chemical analysis of biomass is time-consuming. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed as a rapid primary analytical tool with separate quantitative models developed for the important constituents of Miscanthus, peat, and (Australian) sugarcane bagasse. The work has demonstrated that accurate models are possible, not only for dry homogenous samples, but also for wet heterogeneous samples. For glucose (cellulose) the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for wet samples is 1.24% and the R2 for the validation set ( ) is 0.931. High accuracies are even possible for minor analytes; e.g. for the rhamnose content of wet Miscanthus samples the RMSEP is 0.03% and the is 0.845. Accurate models have also been developed for pre-treated Miscanthus samples and are discussed. In addition, qualitative models have been developed. These allow for samples to be discriminated for on the basis of plant fraction, plant variety (giganteus/non-giganteus), harvest-period (early/late), and stand-age (one-year/older).

Quantitative NIRS models have also been developed for peat, although the heterogeneity of this feedstock means that the accuracies tend to be lower than for Miscanthus. The development of models for sugarcane bagasse has been hindered, in some cases, by the limited chemical variability between the samples in the calibration set. Good models are possible for the glucose and total sugars content, but the accuracy of other models is poorer. NIRS spectra of Brazilian bagasse samples have been projected onto these models, and onto those developed for Miscanthus, and the Miscanthus models appear to provide a better fit than the Australian bagasse models.

V. P. Zambare, S. S. Nilegaonkar, P. P. Kanekar (2011) Use of agroresidues for protease production and application in degelatinazation, Research Journal of BioTechnology 6(2): 62-65
Vasudeo Zambare, Smita Nilegaonkar, Pradnya Kanekar (2010) Application of protease from Bacillus cereus MCM B-326 as a bating agent in leather processing, The IIOAB Journal 1(3): 18-21

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Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to test the efficiency of the extracellular protease from Bacillus cereus MCM B-326; cattle dung and commercial bate powder (ComBate) as bating agents on delimed buffalo hide. Protease treated pelt was free from scud and pigments, clean and fine grain, white, smooth and silkier with loosen fat. Histological sections of bated pelts showed greater opening up of collagen fibers with Bacillus protease. The studies indicated potential importance of Bacillus protease as effective bating agent in leather processing.





Examples of Other Feedstocks Analysed at Celignis



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