Betalains are a class of water-soluble pigments found in a significant number of plants,
including the beetroot and many other plants in the Caryophyllales order. The name "betalain" comes from Beta vulgaris,
the scientific name for the beetroot, which is the most common source of betalains.
Betalains are divided into two categories:
Betacyanins: These pigments range in colour from violet to red. Betanin is the most common betacyanin and is responsible for the
deep red colour of beets.
Betaxanthins: These pigments are yellow to orange. Indicaxanthin is a common betaxanthin found in plants like beets and Swiss chard.